Published Research | RightEye

Published Research







July 2024

Melissa Hunfalvay, Takumi Bolte, Abhishek Singh, Ethan Greenstein, Nicholas P. Murray, Frederick Robert Carrick

Brain Sciences

This study aimed to identify when and how eye movements change across the human lifespan to benchmark developmental biomarkers. The sample size comprised 45,696 participants, ranging in age from 6 to 80 years old (M = 30.39; SD = 17.46). Participants completed six eye movement tests: Circular Smooth Pursuit, Horizontal Smooth Pursuit, Vertical Smooth Pursuit, Horizontal Saccades, Vertical Saccades, and Fixation Stability. These tests examined all four major eye movements (fixations, saccades, pursuits, and vergence) using 89 eye-tracking algorithms.

January 2024

Melissa Hunfalvay, PhD, Kenneth Kopolow, OD & Nicholas P. Murray, PhD

Vision Development & Rehabilitation

The purpose of this study is to determine the reliability of eye-tracking enabled 9-Point Motor Function Test and to determine the validity of the eye-tracking system compared with a traditional Cover Test (CT). Fifty participants between the ages of 19-61 years were tested by a veteran Board-Certified Optometrist using the RightEye 9-Point Motor Function Test (MFT; eye tracking test) and a Cover Test. Participants completed both the 9-Point MFT and the Cover Test in random order and completed the 9-Point MFT test twice to assess test-retest reliability. Reliability was evaluated using Cronbach’s Alpha (CA). Overall reliability was acceptable to excellent per statistical standards.

December 2023

Ailin Song, MD, MHSc, Rami Gabriel, MD, Omar Mohiuddin, MS, MPH, Diane Whitaker, OD, C. Ellis Wisely, MD, MBA, and Terry Kim, MD

Optometry and Vision Science

Automated eye tracking could be used to evaluate saccade performance of patients with concussion history, providing quantitative insights about the degree of oculomotor impairment and potential vision rehabilitation strategies for this patient population. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the saccade performance of patients with concussion history based on automated eye-tracking test results.

July 2022

Unger, Joseph F Jr., DC1,2

Logan University, Atrium Health Services

Saccades appear to be a reliable measure of brain dysfunction following Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Four subjects were chosen at random having a history of traumatic brain injury and active symptomatology. Trauma and chronic stresses are potentially associated with certain distortion patterns of the pelvis and cranium in the Sacro Occipital Technic® Methods (SOT™) of chiropractic and Chiropractic Craniopathy.

May 2022

Hunfalvay, Murray, Creel and Carrick

Brain Science

Chronic low-level blast exposure has been linked with neurological alterations and traumatic brain injury (TBI) biomarkers. Impaired smooth-pursuit eye movements (SPEM) are often associated with TBI. The purpose of this study was to determine whether long-term operators of low-level blast exposure or high-caliber weapons use displayed oculomotor behaviors that differed from controls.

March 2022

Cannizzaro, Melis, and Laye

Frontiers in Neuroscience; Frontiers in Genetics; Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience

The perinatal temporal window is a highly vulnerable time in which environmental factors, such as nutrients, drugs, infections, chemicals, and stress, experienced by the mother can be communicated to the offspring and produce lasting consequences on the newborn brain. Eye tracking is a non-invasive method used to understand these changes.

March 2022

Warlick, Lawton, Breitbach, Hunfalvay, Murray

National Science Foundation: Biomedical Engineering in Simulations, Imaging, and Modeling (BME-SIM)

Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries (mTBI) can lead to visual processing deficits, including decreased visual acuity, visual field impairment, eye movement dysfunction- including vergence, saccadic, smooth pursuit movements, and an increase in mental workload during visual tasks. The purpose of this project was to examine the relationship between brain activity and visual-motor deficit in participants with a recent mTBI compared to healthy controls.

February 2022

Murray, N. P., Trotter, B. M., Sandri Heidner, G., Herman, C., & Hunfalvay, M.

Book, Springer US

This volume explores the latest eye-tracking methodologies that help researchers understand the background, methods, and applications involved in these studies.

December 2021

Murray, Lawton, Rider, Harris and Hunfalvay

Frontiers in Human Neuroscience

The purpose of this project is to determine if a series of oculomotor measures can predict batting and bowling performance in professional cricket players.

December 2021

Hunfalvay, Murray, Mani & Carrick

Brain Injury

Deficits in smooth-pursuit eye movements (SPEM) are often associated with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). Eye tracking tests serve as a quick objective clinical tool to assess such predictive visual tracking. In this study, SPEM was assessed along circular, horizontal and vertical trajectories in adolescents with concussion and age-matched controls.

October 2021

Carrick, Azzolino, Hunfalvay, Pagnacco, Oggero, Arcy, Adbulrahman, Sugaya


A retrospective clinical review of pupillary light reflex. Results show differences in age, gender and concussion status.

September 2021

Kubota, Joshi, Samandarova, Oliva, Selenow, Gupta, Ali, Ciuffreda

Optometry and Visual Science

The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of clear central apertures of different diameters with a defocused retinal periphery, using a range of visual performance tasks. The finding has important applications for spectacle and contact lens designs to optimize myopia.

August 2021

Carrick, Pagnacco, Azzolino, Hunfalvay, Oggero, Frizzell, Smith, Pawlowski, Campbell, Fickling, Lakhani, Arcy

Frontiers in Neuroscience

Provides practical clinical implementations that overcome inherent challenges related to dependence on a baseline. This article establishes normative reference data sets.

July 2021

Breitbach, Lawton, Warlick, Hunfalvay, Murray

Biomedical Engineering Society. National Science Foundation.

Combination of circular smooth pursuit assessment and neuronal activity in the alpha frequency have the potential to be a successful diagnostic tool for TBIs.

May 2021

Hunfalvay, Murray, Tyagi, Whittaker, Noel

American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine

Examines oculomotor training exercises for poor saccadic eye movements. Includes neurobehavioral symptoms pre and post-treatment.

March 2021

Feller, Goldenberg, Asselin, Merchant-Borna, Abar, Jones, Mannix, Kawata, Bazarian

Journal of the American Medical Association: Neurology

Compares persons with and without concussion after the acute injury period. Classification accuracy of clinically important discriminator eye-tracking (ET) metrics. 6 eye-tracking measures that reflect slowed visual reaction time had a combined sensitivity of 77.8% and specificity of 92.6% for discriminating between the groups

December 2020

Hunfalvay, Murray, Carrick

Brain Injury

Examines fixation stability in pediatric patients with mTBI versus age-matched controls.

December 2020

Carrick, Pagnacco, Hunfalvay, Azzolino, Oggero

Brain Sciences

Head and neck position induced by statically maintained head turns is associated with lower stability scores than the standardized head neutral position of the mCTSIB in Post-Concussion Syndrome (PCS) subjects but not in healthy controls. Head positions of the neutral plane provide biomarkers that differentiate subjects suffering from PCS from healthy normal subjects.

November 2020

Hunfalvay, Murray, Roberts, Tyagi, Barclay, Carrick

Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience

Explains how the combined measurement of saccades, smooth pursuit, fixations, and reaction time represent a biomarker for differentiating pediatric patients with mild traumatic brain injury compared to age-matched controls.

June 2020

Liu, Edmunds, Burris & Appelbaum

International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport

RightEye tests predict discipline at the plate for Major League Baseball athletes.

May 2020

Kubitz, Roberts, Hunfalvay, Murray

Journal of Sports and Performance Vision

Shows differences between Major League Baseball, amateur prospects, and non-athletes in visual speed of gaze.

January 2020

Hunfalvay, Barclay, Kelly, Roberts, Murray, Tyagi, Carrick


Examines vertical smooth pursuit test to screen patients with mTBI compared with age-matched controls.

October 2019

Edmunds, Liu, Appelbaum

American Academy of Optometry (AAO)

[Conference Presentation] Shows how better visual abilities predict O-Swing and Z-Swing propensity.

September 2019

Hunfalvay, Murray, Tyagi, Denham, Biberdorf, Wegge

Neuro Optometric Rehabilitation Association (NORA)

[Conference Presentation] New eye-tracking technology, such as RightEye, offers an objective, reliable and quantifiable way of differentiating between individuals with different severities of TBI, and those without a TBI.

July 2019

Hunfalvay, Roberts, Murray, Tyagi, Kelly, Bolte


Examines using eye-tracking tests to measure horizontal and vertical saccades as a marker of damage to neural circuits associated with TBI.

June 2019

Bolte, Kubitz, Roberts, Hunfalvay, Tyagi, Murray

North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity

[Conference Presentation] The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of oculomotor behavior metrics in healthy individuals, to determine the normative values through cluster analysis, and to compare oculomotor behavior metrics by age groups in a suite of digitized eye-tracking tests.

February 2019

Kubitz, Roberts, Hunfalvay, Murray

North American Society for the Psychology of Sport and Physical Activity

[Conference Presentation] Major League Baseball players have faster eye movements in down and horizontal gaze directions compared with amateur prospects. There are not differences in upward gaze.

February 2019

Murray, Kubitz, Roberts, Hunfalvay, Bolte, Tyagi

Vision Development and Rehabilitation (COVD)

This article discusses reliability and normative data across many of the RightEye tests.

October 2018

Hunfalvay, Murray

Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly

Examination if prior biped tennis playing experience results in different visual search strategies for wheelchair tennis athletes.

August 2018

Hunfalvay, Kubitz, Murray, Tibbert, Bolte

Optometry and Visual Performance

Examines if differences occur in Interpupillary Distance (IPD) and Pupil Diameter (PD) between professional baseball players and non-athletes.

July 2018

Lange, Hunfalvay, Murray, Roberts, Bolte

Optometry and Visual Performance

Examination of visual and motor reaction time in athletes, non-athletes, and those with concussion.

March 2018

Byrom, McCarthy, Scheueler, Muehlhausen

Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics

RightEye technology cited in providing reliable estimates of eye-tracking parameters.

February 2018


Optometry and Visual Performance

This opinion piece discusses the use of eye-tracking in clinical practice, including benefits of such technology.

January 2018

Applied Psychophysiology: Using Biofeedback, Neurofeedback, and Visual Feedback

Smith, Hunfalvay, Herzog, Beauchamp

Assessment in Applied Sport Psychology

Visual assessment benefits and tools using eye-tracking in performance (textbook chapter).

December 2017

Hunfalvay, Roberts, Ryan, Murray, Tabano, Martin

International Journal of Sport Sciences

Results suggest that athletes exhibit multiple dynamic shifts in visual fixation prior to the onset of pitcher’s action. A significant positive relationship was found between the number of shifts in visual fixations and batting average.

July 2017

Murray, Hunfalvay, Bolte

Translational Vision Science and Technology

The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of interpupillary distance (IPD) and pupil diameter (PD) measures using an infrared eye tracker and central point stimuli.

June 2017


Translational Biomedicine

This case study examines clinical assessments and eye tracking to monitor patient change over time after extensive vision therapy from a suspected concussion.

April 2017

Hunfalvay, Orr, Murray, Roberts

Vision Development and Rehabilitation (COVD)

RightEye fine depth perception tests demonstrate reliability and validity. Differences are found between athletes and non-athletes.

April 2017

Murray, Hunfalvay, Roberts, Lange

Vision Development and Rehabilitation (COVD)

RightEye DVA tests demonstrate strong reliability results

December 2016

Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group

Optometry and Vision Science

To compare the effectiveness of home-based (HB) computer vergence/accommodative therapy (HB-C) to HB near target push-up therapy (HB-PU) and to HB placebo treatment (HB-P) among children aged 9 to G18 years with symptomatic convergence insufficiency (CI).

June 2016

Roberts, Tabano, Hunfalvay

International Journal of Sports Science

Examines the use of eye-tracking technology in practice and reaction of the technology by athletes.

March 2016

Murray, Hunfalvay

Journal of Sports Sciences

Eye-tracking research used to assess levels of performance with novel statistical analysis.

October 2015

Huston, Hoover

Journal of AAPOS

To evaluate the efficacy of a home-based computer orthoptic program for symptomatic convergence insufficiency (CI) in children.

November 2012

Cooper, Jamal

American Optometric Association

Convergence insufficiency is a common binocular vision disorder affecting approximately 5% of the population in the United States. It is often associated with a host of symptoms that occur when doing near work, such as reading and computer viewing. This article reviews the existing literature on convergence insufficiency including etiology, diagnosis, sensorimotor findings, and management.

March 2011

Serna, Rogers, McGregor, Golden, Bremer, Rogers

Journal of AAPOS

To determine the efficacy of a home-based computer orthoptic program to treat symptomatic convergence insufficiency

December 2009

Cooper, Feldman


Recent studies have found that symptoms associated with convergence insufficiency are reduced by in-office vision therapy with supplemental home therapy. This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the changes in symptoms using an automated, home computer vision therapy program (HTSTM) in accommodative/vergence disorders.

December 2007


Journal of Behavioral Optometry

Vision therapy or orthoptics is the standard treatment for symptomatic accommodative-vergence anomalies and amblyopia. Computerization of vision therapy has improved treatment results by: standardizing protocols; providing positive or negative reinforcement based upon responses; eliminating experimental (therapist) bias in research and/or therapy; and standardizing stimuli and methodology for diagnosis/treatment.

July 2007

Coker & Hunfalvay

Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology

Connects verbal cues with visual cues during observational learning.

March 2005


Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport

Examines the visual search patterns of wheelchair tennis players related to past experience.

December 2003

Borsting, Rouse, Mitchell, Scheiman, Cotter, Cooper, Kulp, London, Convergence Insufficiency Treatment Trial Group

Optometry and Vision Science

To assess the validity and reliability of the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) in children aged 9 to 18 years. The CISS is the primary outcome measure for a pilot study evaluating two different treatments for convergence insufficiency (CI).